1.5 Plant

Use this domain for general words for all plants. Use a book of pictures to identify plant names and the scientific name. Languages divide plants into various domains that are not always comparable from language to language. Criterial features may be characteristics (trees and bushes are distinguished by size and number of trunks) and use (grass and weeds are distinguished by their desirability). A common distinction is between trees and non-trees, with trees described as being big, woody, and having a life expectancy of several years, while non-trees are small, non-woody, and have a life expectancy of typically not more than one year (Heine, Bernd and Karsten Legere. 1995. Swahili plants. Rudiger Koppe Verlag: Koln.). Agricultural societies will divide plants into wild and cultivated. However most plants for which there are names have some use. Therefore it does not seem helpful to divide plant names into domains for useful and non-useful plants. Since only parts of plants are eaten, edible parts of plants are listed under the domain 'Food'. Some languages may have more domains than are used in this list, others may have fewer. The classification system used here does not agree entirely with the system used by botanists. For instance botanists do not classify all the tree species together. The palm trees belong to the class Monocotyledoneae and are classified with lilies, bananas, and orchids. Apple and cherry trees belong to the class Dicotyledoneae and are classified in the rose family along with roses and blackberries. The acacia tree also belongs to the class Dicotyledoneae and is classified in the pulse family along with lupines and beans. However most folk taxonomies bring all the trees together. The scientific classification system for plants and animals is taken from: Carruth, Gorton, ed. 1989. The Volume Library, Vols. 1 and 2. The Southwestern Company: Nashville.

OMC Codes: 
137 Flora
Louw Nida Codes: 
3 Plants
3A Plants
  • What words refer to all plants?
    plant, flora, greenery, vegetation, herbage
  • What words describe types of plants?
    angiosperm, annual, aquatic, biennial, bracken, brake, creeper, deciduous, edible, flower, greens, herbaceous, hybrid, leafy, legume, luscious, parasite, perennial, plankton, pulse, sedge, succulent, tropical, vegetable, vine, weed, woody, wort
  • What words are used to describe plants that grow wild?
    wild, uncultivated
  • What words refer to cultivated plants?
  • What words refer to a group of plants?
    bale, bouquet, bracken, brush, bunch, canopy, clump, cluster, cover, covert, corsage, crop, culture, forest, greenery, grove, growth, hassock, haystack, herbage, jungle, kelp, nosegay, orchard, scrub, sheaf, shock, shrubbery, skein, spray, stand, sward, thicket, tuft, turf, tussock, underbrush, undergrowth, vegetation, verdure, vermin
  • What words refer to the study of plants?
    botany, botanist, herbalist
  • 1.5.1 Tree

    Use this domain for trees--flowering plants with roots, stems, and leaves, which are large and have a wooden trunk (Phylum Spermatophyta, Subdivision Angiospermae). Also include the evergreen trees (Phylum Spermatophyta, Subdivision Gymnospermae). Evergreen trees do not have flowers, but have cone like fruits (pinecones) that contain seeds. Their leaves are shaped like needles and are retained for over a year.

    OMC Codes: 
    137d Trees and wood
    Louw Nida Codes: 
    3B Trees
  • What general words refer to trees?
    tree, arboreal
  • What words refer to general types of trees?
    broadleaf, conifer, coniferous, cycad, deciduous, evergreen, fir, fruit tree, palm, pine, timber
  • What types of trees are there?
    acacia, alder, almond, apple, apricot, ash, aspen, avocado, azalea, balsa, balsam, banyan, bayberry, beech, betel nut, birch, blackberry, blueberry, box, boxwood, Brazil, breadfruit, broom, camellia, cashew, cassia, catalpa, cedar, cherry, chestnut, chinaberry, cinnamon, cinchona, citron, citrus, clove, coca, coconut, coffee, cornel, cottonwood, cranberry, currant, cypress, date, dogwood, ebony, elder, elm, eucalyptus, fig, fir, forsythia, gardenia, gingko, grapefruit, guava, gum, hawthorn, hazel, hazelnut, hemlock, henna, hickory, ironwood, juniper, jute, kumquat, laburnum, larch, laurel, lemon, lignum, lilac, lime, linden, litchi, locust, magnolia, mahogany, mango, mangrove, manzanita, maple, marihuana, marijuana, mesquite, mimosa, mistletoe, mulberry, myrtle, nutmeg, oak, oleander, olive, orange, papaw, papaya, persimmon, peach, pear, pecan, persimmon, pine, pistachio, plane, plum, poinciana, pomegranate, poplar, quince, redwood, rosewood, sandalwood, sapling, sassafras, satinwood, saxifrage, scrub, senna, sequoia, sisal, spruce, spurge, stinkwood, sumac, sycamore, tamarack, tamarind, tamarisk, tangerine, teak, walnut, upas, willow, yew, ylang-ylang
  • What types of trees are used for decoration?
  • What words refer to a group of trees?
    forest, woods, grove, stand
  • 1.5.2 Bush, shrub

    Use this domain for bushes and shrubs--plants that are smaller than trees and have several wooden trunks (Phylum Spermatophyta, Subdivision Angiospermae).

    OMC Codes: 
    137e Shrubs
  • What general words refer to bushes?
    bush, bushy, shrub, hedge
  • What types of bushes are there?
    poinsettia, rose bush, bougainvillea
  • 1.5.3 Grass, herb, vine

    Use this domain for small plants that have roots, stems, flowers, and seeds, but do not have a wooden trunk (Phylum Spermatophyta, Subdivision Angiospermae). Also include the seedless plants, such as ferns (phylum Pteridophyta, class Felicineae), horsetails (phylum Pteridophyta, class Equisetineae), and club mosses (phylum Pteridophyta, class Lycopodineae). Plants of the Pteridophyta phylum have no flowers or seeds. Ferns have large, divided, feather-like leaves, or fronds. Club mosses are small (rarely over one meter) evergreen plants with simple leaves resembling pine or hemlock needles. Sometimes they grow upright, but often trail on the ground, where they propagate by means of runners. Horsetails send up tall, vertical, jointed stalks with branches covered with scale like leaves.

    OMC Codes: 
    137f Grass and Weeds
    137g Herbs, medicinal, fungus
    Louw Nida Codes: 
    3C Plants That Are Not Trees
  • What general words refer to small plants?
    (no words in English)
  • What general types of small plants are there?
    herb, grass, vine, aquatic, bulb, bulbous, briar, brier, burr, cactus, cane, creeper, cultivated, fern, flowering, gourd, reed, sod, sprawling, thorny, weed, wild
  • What types of plants are there?
    absinthe, acacia, agave, anemone, arbutus, arrowhead, arrowroot, artemisia, arum, asparagus, aster, banana, bean, beet, begonia, belladonna, bellflower, bindweed, bluebell, broccoli, burdock, buttercup, cabbage, carnation, carrot, cassava, cattail, celery, chard, chickpea, chickweed, chive, chrysanthemum, clematis, collard, columbine, corn, cosmos, crocus, cucumber, cyclamen, daffodil, dahlia, daisy, dandelion, delphinium, dock, dogbane, duckweed, eggplant, endive, everlasting, figwort, fireweed, flax, flower, forget-me-not, fritillaria, fuchsia, garbanzo, garlic, gentian, geranium, gladiola, gladiolus, globeflower, goldenrod, glory, grapevine, greenbrier, groundsel, heather, hibiscus, hollyhock, hyacinth, honeysuckle, hop, holly, hyssop, indigo, iris, ivy, jasmine, jonquil, kale, knotweed, hydrangea, larkspur, lavender, leek, lespedeza, lettuce, liana, lily, lobelia, lotus, locoweed, lupine, maguey, mallow, manioc, marguerite, marigold, mayflower, mescal, mignonette, milkweed, monkshood, mustard, narcissus, nasturtium, nettle, okra, oleaster, onion, orchid, paintbrush, pansy, pea, peanut, pennycress, peony, pepper, periwinkle, petunia, pigweed, phlox, pimpernel, plantain, poinsettia, pokeweed, poppy, potato, primrose, radish, ragweed, ranunculus, rhododendron, rue, rutabaga, sagebrush, sandbur, seaweed, smilax, soybean, sedge, spinach, spiraea, spirea, squash, stinkweed, strawberry, strawflower, sundew, sunflower, thistle, tobacco, tomato, tulip, tumbleweed, turnip, vegetable, verbena, vervain, vetch, vine, viola, violet, wallflower, watermelon, william, wisteria, wormwood, yam, yucca
  • What types of grass are there?
    alfalfa, bamboo, barley, bluegrass, buckwheat, bulrush, burmuda grass, cane, cereal, clover, corn, crabgrass, elephant grass, foxtail, grass, horsetail, knotgrass, lemongrass, maize, millet, oat, reed, rye, sesame, shortgrass, sorghum, speargrass, sugarcane, weed, wheat
  • What types of aromatic herbs are there?
    amaryllis, angelica, anise, balm, basil, chamomile, cardamom, cassia, catnip, chamomile, chervil, chicory, cosmopolitan, cowpea, cress, cumin, dill, fennel, fenugreek, feverfew, foxglove, ginseng, henbane, herb, horehound, hyssop, licorice, lucerne, mandrake, marjoram, medicinal, mint, parsley, parsnip, peppermint, portulaca, purslane, rosemary, sage, savory, saxifrage, skunk, sorrel, spearmint, spikenard, tarragon, thyme, valerian, watercress, wintergreen, yarrow
  • What types of vines are there?
    grape vine, morning glory
  • What types of reeds are there?
    reed, papyrus, rush, cane, sugarcane, bamboo
  • What types of plants have flowers?
    rose, carnation, orchid, sunflower
  • What types of plants have edible seeds?
    legume, bean, pea, soybean, wheat, rice
  • What plants have fruit?
    grape, pineapple
  • What types of berries are there?
    berry, strawberry, raspberry, cranberry, blueberry
  • What types of bananas are there?
    banana, plantain, cooking banana
  • What types of plants have edible roots?
    potato, carrot, sweet potato, cassava, cocoyam, taro, yam, beets, ginger
  • What plants are eaten by animals?
    hay, alfalfa
  • What plants are used for making fibers, cloth or rope?
    cotton, sisal
  • What species of ferns are there?
    bracken, brake, fern, maidenhair
  • What species of horsetails are there?
  • What species of club mosses are there?
    club moss
  • 1.5.4 Moss, fungus, algae

    Use this domain for mosses (phylum Bryophyta, class Musci), liverworts (phylum Bryophyta, class Hepaticae), fungi (phylum Thallophyta, subdivision Fungi), algae (phylum Thallophyta, subdivision Algae), and lichens. These plants do not have true roots, stems, or leaves. The mosses are small, green, flowerless plants that grow in moist environments and look like velvety or feathery growths carpeting the ground, tree trunks, and rocks. The liverworts are similar to the mosses with a flat and branching growth pattern. The algae possess green chlorophyll. They vary from one-celled organisms, which sometimes live in colonies such as pond scum, to complex organisms such as seaweed. The fungi do not possess chlorophyll and feed off of other organic material. Lichens consist of a fungus and an algae growing together. They commonly grow on trunks of trees and rocks. Some are flat and leafy, and some are moss like.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    3C Plants That Are Not Trees
  • What general words refer to moss, fungus, and algae?
    phytoplankton, plankton, scum
  • What general words refer to moss?
  • What species of moss are there?
  • What general words refer to liverworts?
  • What species of liverworts are there?
  • What general words refer to algae?
    algae, gulfweed, seaweed, wrack
  • What species of algae are there?
    diatom, sea lettuce, kelp, rockweed, Sargasso, sargassum
  • What general words refer to fungi?
    fungus, bacteria, mold, mildew, mushroom
  • What species of fungi are there?
    apple scab, bloom, bread mold, button mushroom, downy mildew, dry rot, morel, penicillium, puffball, rose mildew, rust fungi, slime mold, smut, toadstool, truffle, yeast
  • What general words refer to lichen?
  • What species of lichen are there?
    reindeer moss
  • 1.5.5 Parts of a plant

    Use this domain for words that refer to parts of a plant. Start with general words that all plants have. Then think through each major type of plant. Finish by thinking of specific plants that are well known (usually cultivated crops) and that have words for specific parts (e.g. tassel on a corn/maize cob).

    OMC Codes: 
    137a Plant Parts
    Louw Nida Codes: 
    3D Fruit Parts of Plants
    3E Non-Fruit Parts of Plants
  • What are the basic parts of all plants?
    root, trunk, stalk, branch, stem, leaf
  • What words refer to the roots?
    root, tuber, tubercle, bulb, taproot, runner, root hairs, rootstock
  • What words refer to the trunk?
    trunk, stalk, reed, bole, woody, base
  • What words refer to the branches?
    branch, bough, limb, twig, stick, stem, fork
  • What words refer to the leaves?
    leaf, leafy, pine needle, fern, foliage, palm frond, stem, blade, vein
  • What types of thorns are there?
    thorn, spine, cactus needle, burr
  • What words refer to the outside of a plant?
    bark, burl, knot, hull, husk, shell, cork
  • What is the inside of a plant called?
    wood, rings, heartwood, pith, pulp, fiber
  • What words refer to the seeds?
    seed, acorn, bean, berry, cone, ear, grain, gourd, kernel, nut, pinecone, pod, rosehip, bran, chaff, cob, corncob, germ, head of grain, hull, husk, nutshell, pod, pit, rind, section, seedcase, shell, skin, stem, stone, whole(wheat)
  • What words refer to the fruit?
    fruit, peel, peeling, juice, pulp, pulpy, flesh, fleshy, core, skin, stem, seed
  • What words refer to the flowers?
    flower, bloom, blossom, petal, stamen, pistil, nectar, pollen, spear, spike
  • What are the parts of a vine?
    vine, runner, creeper
  • What are the parts of grass?
    stem, stalk, blade of grass, straw
  • What are the parts of maize?
    head, cob, husk, corn silk, kernel, tassel
  • What are the parts of a banana plant?
    stalk, leaf, flower, bunch, hand, finger
  • What are the parts of a coconut tree?
    trunk, frond, midrib, leaf, needle, nut, husk, shell, meat, milk
  • What is new growth on a plant called?
    shoot, sprout, bud, new growth, old growth
  • What is a group of fruit called?
    cluster of fruit, bunch of grapes, hand of bananas
  • What liquids are produced by plants?
    sap, resin, juice, milk
  • What are the dead parts of plants called?
    dead branches, dead wood, rot, dry rot, dead leaves, dry leaves
  • What words are used of plants when they have been cut down?
    log, stump, grass trimmings, compost, pile of leaves, straw, hay
  • 1.5.6 Growth of plants

    Use this domain for words related to the growth of plants.

    OMC Codes: 
    137b Growth Stages
    Louw Nida Codes: 
    23K Grow, Growth
    23L Ripen, Produce Fruit, Bear Seed
  • What words refer to the growth of plants?
    grow, growth, branch out, put down roots, spread, develop, extend, flourish, spring, swell, thrive, photosynthesis
  • What words refer to a seed beginning to grow?
    germinate, sprout, spring up, seedling
  • What words refer to a plant producing leaves?
    bud, leaf out, produce leaves
  • What words refer to a plant bearing seeds or fruit?
    flower, blossom, bear fruit, produce fruit, fruitful, head, drop seeds, pollinate, yield
  • What words refer to seeds and fruit being ripe?
    green, unripe, immature, mature, mellow, ripen, ripe
  • What words describe how plants grow?
    spread, run (of vines), entwine, cling, trail
  • What words refer to a plant dying?
    wither, droop, fade, decay, rot, dry, die
  • Where are dead plants put?
    compost pile
  • 1.5.7 Plant diseases

    Use this domain for words related to plant diseases.

    OMC Codes: 
    137c Parasites
  • What types of diseases occur in plants?
    blight, wither
  • What types of parasites live on plants?
  • What words refer to plants dropping their fruit?
    drop fruit