Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate epistemic moods. Epistemic moods have the whole proposition in their scope and indicate the degree of commitment of the speaker to the truth or future truth of the proposition. They may be combined with any of the tenses, either in the same morpheme or in combinations of morphemes. The following definitions are taken from Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
Louw Nida Codes:
possibility: the speaker is indicating that the situation described in the proposition is possibly true. Some markers with this meaning also indicate future time: 'He may arrive late because of the weather; It may snow again tomorrow; She could have already taken it'.
probability: the speaker is indicating that the situation described in the proposition is probably true. Some marker with this meaning also indicate future time. This is sometimes called the "Dubitative" in grammars: 'Paula should be home by now'.
inferred certainty: the speaker infers from evidence that the proposition is true: 'They must have killed a bear here (I can see blood on the snow)'.
certainty: the speaker is emphasizing that the proposition is true.
uncertainty: the speaker is emphasizing that s/he doesn't know that the proposition is true.
indicative: main clause mood that also appears in questions. Contrasts with subjunctive, conditional, and imperative.
[none in English]